Intestinal atresia & stenosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With intestinal atresia, atresia refers to a passageway that’s closed or gone completely, so intestinal atresia is when a malformation during fetal development results an absent portion of […]

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Is Santa Claus at risk of a heart attack?

Osmosis videos often include famous people who have had a disease, and it’s for two reasons: one it helps to destigmatize having the disease, and two, it helps […]

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Atrial Septal Defect Explained

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, […]

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Premature Ventricular Contraction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

The heart has two lower chambers, called the ventricles, so a premature ventricular contraction is when the ventricles contract earlier than normal in the cardiac cycle. This happens […]

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Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG) – basics

An electrocardiogram – or ECG – or the dutch and german version of the word – EKG, is a tool used to visualize the electricity that flows through […]

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Atrioventricular (AV) block – first, second, third (complete) degree

All right as a quick recap Atrial ventricular block is a type of arrhythmia where the signal is delayed or blocked when moving from the atria to the […]

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Chronic kidney disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Chronic kidney disease is a broad term that includes subtle decreases in kidney function that develop over a minimum of three months. In contrast, acute kidney injury refers […]

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Small bowel ischemia & infarction – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Small bowel refers to the small intestine and infarction is when ischemia, which is an inadequate blood supply, causes necrosis, or tissue death. So, a small bowel infarction […]

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